Introduction
 
Executive Summary
 
The Early 1990's
 
Current Recovery
 
What Lies Ahead?
 
Proposed Solutions
 
Findings from Interviews
 
Concluding Thoughts
 
Endnotes
 
Appendix
 
About the National Center

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Page 9 of 11

Endnotes

1 These foundations include, but are not limited to, The James Irvine Foundation, The Ralph M. Parsons Foundation of Los Angeles, and The Weingart Foundation. It is noteworthy that several private foundations perceived a need for external studies of higher education issues at this time, further evidence of the state policy vacuum in this area during the 1990s.
2 California Higher Education Policy Center, Shared Responsibility: Strategies for Quality and Opportunity in California Higher Education (San Jose: 1996); Roger Benjamin and Stephen Carroll, Breaking the Social Contract: The Fiscal Crisis in California Higher Education (Santa Monica: RAND, Council for Aid to Education, 1997); California Citizens Commission on Higher Education, A State of Learning: California Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century (Los Angeles: Center for Governmental Studies, 1998); and California Education Roundtable, California at the Crossroads (Sacramento: 1998).
3 Those interviewed are identified in the appendix.
4 Lawrence E. Gladieux, Tracy Hartzler Toon and Watson Scott Swail, California Trends in Student Aid: 1990 to 1996 (San Jose: California Higher Education Policy Center, 1997).
5 California Office of the Governor, Building the New California, Governorís Budget Document, 1995-96, pp. 43-45.
6 In September 1995, the California Higher Education Policy Center helped establish this consensus view by publishing an evaluation of enrollment projections: David W. Breneman, Leobardo F. Estrada and Gerald C. Hayward, Tidal Wave II: An Evaluation of Enrollment Projections for California Higher Education (San Jose: 1995). One recent dissenting voice, a report from the Office of the Legislative Analyst, will be discussed subsequently.
7 Elizabeth Hill, Higher Education Enrollments: Is a Tidal Wave Coming? (Sacramento: Office of the Legislative Analyst, 1998).
8 See Gerald C. Hayward, David W. Breneman and Leobardo F. Estrada, Tidal Wave II Revisited: A Review of Earlier Enrollment Projections for California Higher Education (San Jose: National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 1998).
9 California Higher Education Policy Center, Shared Responsibility, pp. 4-5.
10 Ibid., p. 6.
11 Ibid., p. 8.
12 Citizens Commission, A State of Learning, p. 16.
13 Education Roundtable, California at the Crossroads, p. 4.
14 California Higher Education Policy Center, Shared Responsibility, p. 10.
15 CPEC, Challenge of the Century (Sacramento: 1994), recommendation 2.1.
16 Economists William Baumol and William Bowen have developed this argument extensively, as applied not only to higher education but also to health care, the performing arts, and other service fields.
17 Benjamin and Carroll, Breaking the Social Contract (RAND), pp. 21-26.
18 Citizens Commission, A State of Learning, p. 14.
19 Education Roundtable, California at the Crossroads, p. 4.
20 California Higher Education Policy Center, Shared Responsibility, p. 9.
21 Citizens Commission, A State of Learning, p. 15.
22 California Citizens Commission on Higher Education, A State of Learning, Blueprint for Implementing the Report (Los Angeles: Center for Governmental Studies, 1998), p. 83.
23 Citizens Commission, A State of Learning, p. 20.
24 Ibid., p. 22.
25 In relation to Los Angeles, these issues were discussed in detail in a two-part series by Nancy Hill-Holtzman that recently ran in the Los Angeles Times: "L.A. Community Colleges Under Siege," August 2, 1998, pp. A1+; and "Critics Say Unions Stifle L.A.ís Two Year Colleges," August 3, 1998, pp. A1+.
26 California Higher Education Policy Center, Shared Responsibility, p. 15.
27 See Commission on the Academic Presidency, Renewing the Academic Presidency (Washington, DC: Association of Governing Boards, 1996), pp. 28-33. I should note that no one from the University of California mentioned this issue to me.
28 David W. Breneman, "Remediation in Higher Education: Its Extent and Cost," in Brookings Papers on Education Policy, 1998 (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1998), pp. 359-383.
29 Citizens Commission, A State of Learning, p. 24.
30 Ibid., p. 25.
31 Education Roundtable, California at the Crossroads, p. 4.
32 Benjamin and Carroll, Breaking the Social Contract (RAND), pp. 24-25.
33 David W. Breneman, A State of Emergency? (San Jose: California Higher Education Policy Center, 1995).
34 UC Task Force on Outreach, New Directions for Outreach (Oakland: UC Office of the President, 1997).
35 See Richard C. Atkinson, "Perspectives on the University of California," unpublished paper, Office of the President, 1998.
36 See California Virtual University, Academic Plan.

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