Page 6 of 7
||The study was conducted by the California Higher Education Policy
Center from 1994 to 1997, and was funded by The James Irvine Foundation and The Pew
||See Executive Office of the President of the United States, The
Economic Report of the President (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office,
1997); and U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics,
1997 Digest of Education Statistics (Washington, D.C.: 1997), pp. 421÷422.
||Knocking at the College Door: Projections of High School Graduates
by State, Race/Ethnicity 1996÷2012 (Boulder, CO: WICHE Publications),
as cited in L. Reisberg, ãSize of High School Graduating Class Will Hit 3.2
Million,ä Chronicle of Higher Education (March 27, 1998), p. A48.
||See California Higher Education Policy Center, Shared Responsibility:
Strategies for Quality and Opportunity in California Higher Education (San Jose,
CA: 1996); and Commission on National Investment in Higher Education, Breaking
the Social Contract: The Fiscal Crisis in Higher Education (Santa Monica, CA:
RAND Corporation, 1997).
||See J. Immerwahr, The Price of Admission: The Growing Importance
of Higher Education (San Jose, CA: National Center for Public Policy and Higher
||See Wingspread Group on Higher Education, An American Imperative:
Higher Expectations for Higher Education (Racine, WI: Johnson Foundation, 1993);
J. Immerwahr with J. Boese, Preserving the Higher Education Legacy: A Conversation
with California Leaders (San Jose, CA: California Higher Education Policy Center,
1995); U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National
Adult Literacy Survey (Washington D.C.: National Center for Educational Statistics,
1992); and J. Harvey and J. Immerwahr, The Fragile Coalition: Public Support for
Higher Education in the 1990s (Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education,
||Commission on National Investment in Higher Education, Breaking
the Social Contract, p. 2.
||H. D. Graham, ãStructure and Governance in American Higher
Education: Historical and Comparative Analysis in State Policy,ä Journal
of Policy History 1 (1989), pp. 80÷107; L. Glenny, Autonomy of Public
Colleges: The Challenge of Coordination (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959); R. O.
Berdahl, Statewide Coordination of Higher Education (Washington, D.C.: ACE,
1971); and C. Kerr and M. Gade, The Guardians: Boards of Trustees of American
Colleges and Universities, What They Do and How Well They Do It? (Washington,
D.C.: AGB, 1989).
||See in particular R. O. Berdahl, ãStatewide Coordination of
Higher Education and Education Commission of the States,ä 1997 State Postsecondary
Education Structures Sourcebook (Denver: Education Commission of the States,
||R. Novak ãStatewide Governance: Autonomy or Accountability
Revisited,ä Trusteeship (March÷April 1993), pp. 10÷14.
||1997 State Postsecondary Education Structures Sourcebook.
||J. M. Burns, J. W. Peltason, T. E. Cronin, State and Local Politics:
Government by the People (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1990).
||G. L. Williams, ãThe ÎMarketizationâ of Higher
Education: Reforms and Potential Reforms in Higher Education Finance,ä Emerging
Patterns of Social Demand and University Reform: Through a Glass Darkly, edited
by D. D. Dill and B. Sporn (Tarrytown, N.Y.: Elsevier Science, Inc., 1995), pp. 170÷193.
||See D. Osborne, and T. Gaebler, Reinventing Government: How the
Entrepreneurial Spirit is Transforming the Public Sector (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley,
||We draw here upon a modified version of concepts used by C. Handy,
ãBalancing Corporate Power: A New Federalist Paper,ä Harvard Business
Review (November÷December, 1992), pp. 59÷72, to describe the integrated
system and to distinguish federal from unified systems.
||The State of Washingtonâs 2020 Commission, established by the
governor in 1998, is a notable exception. In this case a commission was appointed
to probe the future of a state system that is generally believed to be successful.
||C. Kerr, ãA Critical Age in the University World: Accumulated
Heritage Versus Modern Imperatives,ä European Journal of Education 22
(1987), p. 186.
||D. Bok, Universities and the Future of America (Durham, NC:
Duke University Press, 1990), p. 111.
||The exception here is the former teachers colleges, which were typically
governed by the state board of education.
||See B. R. Clark, The Higher Education System: Academic Organization
in Cross-National Perspective (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983),
||P. M. Callan and J. E. Finney, editors, Public and Private Financing
of Higher Education: Shaping Public Policy for the Future (Phoenix: American
Council on Education and Oryx Press, 1997), pp. 30÷55.
||R. T. Garrett, ãPattonâs Reforms: Kentucky Governor Brings
Change to Postsecondary Education,ä National CrossTalk 5, no. 3 (Fall
1997), p. 1+; W. Trombley, ãMega Merger in Minnesota: Anticipated Gains in
Savings and Efficiency Prove to be Elusive,ä National CrossTalk 5 (Fall
1997), p. 3; and A. C. McGuinness, ãThe Functions and Evolution of State Coordination
and Governance in Postsecondary Education,ä 1997 State Postsecondary Education
Structures Sourcebook, pp. 1÷48.
||See W. Trombley, ãPerformance-Based Budgeting: South Carolinaâs
New Plan Mired in Detail and Confusion,ä National CrossTalk 6 (Winter
1998), p. 1; and A. Serban and J. Burke, Meeting the Performance Funding Challenge:
A Nine State Comparative Analysis (Albany: Nelson Rockefeller Institute, 1997).
DOWNLOAD | PREVIOUS
© 1998 The National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education