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1 National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics (Washington, D.C.: 1999), pp. 212-213, tables 190, 191.
2 Ibid., pp.349-350, tables 324, 325 (excludes sales and services).
3 Edward Hines and James Palmer, Grapevine (Normal, IL: Illinois State University, 1999),, table 9.
4 National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 29th Annual Survey, 1997-98 (Albany: 1999), p. 1, table 1.
5 U.S. Census Bureau, "Mean Earnings of Workers 18 Years and Older by Educational Attainment, Race, Hispanic Origin, and Sex," unpublished table,
6 U.S. Census Bureau, School Enrollment: Social and Economic Characteristics of Students, October 1997 (Washington, D.C.: July 1999), pp. 4-5.
7 Technology and Restructuring Roundtable, Leveraged Learning (Stanford, CA: Stanford Forum for Higher Education Futures, 1995); Dewayne Matthews, The Transformation of Higher Education Through Informational Technology: Implications for State Higher Education Finance Policy (Denver: WICHE, January 1998); and Patrick M. Callan and Joni E. Finney, "The Changing Contours of Higher Education: The Policy Implications of an Emerging System," November 1998, a paper sponsored by the University Continuing Education Association and The Council of Graduate Schools, forthcoming in a book by ACE/Oryx Press. See also Eli M. Noam, "Electronics and the Dim Future of the University," in Science, October 13, 1995, vol. 270, p. 247: "Today’s production and distribution of information are undermining the traditional flow of information and with it the university structure, making it ready to collapse in slow motion once alternatives to its function become possible."
8 National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics (Washington, D.C.: 1999),
p. 334, table 311.
9 National Association of State Budget Officers, 1998 State Expenditure Report (Washington, D.C.: 1999), p. 9, table 3.
10 National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics (Washington, D.C.: 1999), p. 349, table 324.
11 Western Interstate Commission on Higher Education, Knocking on the College Door (Denver: 1999), p. 22.
12 William T. Gormley, Jr., and David L. Weimer, Organizational Report Cards (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999), p. 36.
13 Ibid., p. 198.
14 Pascal D. Forgione, Jr., The Condition of Education (U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research, 1998), p. i.


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